From Bondage to Blessing

Chapter 3 - Genesis: The Father's Heart

"The counsel of the Lord stands forever, The plans of his heart to all generations." (Psalm 33:11)

The book of Genesis, which literally means "beginning", is considered the seedbed of the entire Bible. Every biblical truth can be found in seed form in Genesis. For this reason, it is important to look at the Father's mind, heart and purposes revealed in the book of Genesis as we go back to the creation of woman.

Genesis chapter 1

"Then God said, 'Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.' So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. Then God blessed them, and God said to them, 'Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth'."(Genesis 1:26-28)

In God's image

The first thing we see from this account is that mankind was created in the image and likeness of God. Most scholars agree that the likeness was spiritual, intellectual, emotional and moral. Others refer to a likeness in authority, since God gave 'adam (Hebrew 'adam here meaning 'human being' or 'mankind') delegated authority. Mankind's creation in the image and likeness of God does not refer to physical likeness or likeness in those divine attributes such as omnipotence, omnipresence or omniscience. Man is not God. As Matthew Henry so eloquently stated, man is God's image "only as the shadow in the glass, or the king's impress upon the coin."1 Mankind in God's image and likeness means the pattern and features are recognizable, but the life, depth and scope of the original are not quite there.

Female in God's image

Secondly, we see that man (Hebrew 'adam here meaning 'human being' or 'mankind') was initially both male and female. This means that the female part of 'adam was also made in the image and likeness of God. Contrary to popular belief, God is not male. Nor is He female, as the goddess cults would have us believe. Rather, God is Spirit (John 4:24). Tucker and Liefeld note that pagan deities were always in the image of mankind, either masculine or feminine. God, however, is infinitely greater and "transcends human masculinity and femininity."2 Spencer points out that the New Testament writers were always careful to describe Jesus as anthropos (generic human- a Greek word corresponding to 'adam in the Hebrew3) rather than as aner (male). She concludes, "Although God became a male, God primarily became a human."4 Her statement is supported by the understanding of the early Christians as expressed in the Nicene Creed (A.D. 325).5

A study of the Bible will show us that God possesses certain characteristics which we (not He) have classified as female. For example, God called Himself El Shaddai (Genesis 17:1). According to rabbinical understanding, this name portrays God as our sufficiency.6 Dakes identifies El Shaddai as meaning "strong, breasted one." He notes the name reveals God as "Strong Nourisher, Strength-giver, Satisfier, and all Bountiful, the Supplier of the needs of His people." He goes on to say that God revealed Himself in El Shaddai as "Life-Giver" to Abraham and Sarah.7 We see that El Shaddai can have the connotation of life-giving, nourishing and nurturing - attributes we usually attribute to women. Women actually have this attribute because God has this attribute. It is all part of being in His image and likeness!

In the book of Isaiah, God revealed the "feminine" side of His nature when He promised the remnant of Judah, "As one whom his mother comforts, so will I comfort you" (Isaiah 66:13). Other Old Testament passages which reveal this "feminine" side of God include: Numbers 11:12, Deuteronomy 32:18, Jeremiah 31:20, Isaiah 42:13-14 and 46:3-4. Jesus, in His lament over Jerusalem, also portrayed Himself in a way we would describe as distinctly feminine. He sadly told them, "How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing!" (Matthew 23:37). Matthew Henry, in his commentary on Isaiah, draws upon the female imagery of God revealed in Scripture. He wrote,

"The word of God, the covenant of grace (especially the promises of that covenant), the ordinances of God, and all the opportunities of attending on him and conversing with him, are the breasts, which the church calls and counts as the breasts of her consolations, where her comforts are laid up, and whence by faith and prayer they are drawn. With her therefore we must suck from these breasts, by an application of the promises of God to ourselves ..."8(emphasis added).

Leonard Swidler interestingly points out that "all through this Hebrew writing [of the Old Testament] the divine spirit, Ruach, is feminine in gender, with the adjectives and verbs following in form."9

It is important to emphasize that we are not attempting to portray God as female! Rather, we are recognizing that females, made in God's image and likeness, exhibit unique aspects of God's character.

Unity of male and female in 'Adam

The third item of note in Genesis 1:26-28 concerns the awareness that male and female together reveal the fullness of God's image. Theologians disagree on whether this passage refers to 'adam as being male and female in one person or whether it refers to the two individuals after the later creation of the woman. Modern scholars who take the latter view tend to use disparaging terms such as androgynous and hermaphrodite to describe a male-female Adam. However, this was the traditional understanding in Hebrew thought, and it certainly fits the facts available better than any other interpretation:

  1. We see what we would consider both male and female characteristics in God's revelation of Himself.
  2. How would God take the woman out of 'adam (Genesis 2:21-22) if she were not in 'adam to begin with?
  3. It also explains why men and women complement each other and why God ordained that when man and woman join together in marriage, they once again become "one flesh" (Genesis 2:24).

Within the larger context of the Body of Christ, we find that each gender offers something unique in terms of vision, perspective, discernment, awareness of needs, etc. to bring completion to the expression of God's mind and heart in the earth.

Joint dominion

Lastly, regardless of whether 'adam was male and female in one person or two, we find that both male and female were given joint dominion over the earth. According to Lawrence O. Richards, and substantiated by numerous other scholars, the ideal of full equality as persons is clearly taught in Genesis 1:26-28.10 The picture exhibited in Genesis chapter 1 is that of male and female sharing in power, authority and dignity as God's representatives on the earth. This was God's purpose for men and women before the fall. Because Jesus came to bring restoration and liberty from the penalty and results of sin brought on by the fall, we can accept that equal dominion is still God's purpose for men and women today.

Psalm 8, which reveals the glory of God in creation, substantiates that even after the fall, mankind (meaning men and women) was ordained to have dominion and authority over the natural realm. The Hebrew word used is 'enosh. It ascribes no particular gender, and means mortal humankind in all their weakness and frailty. It is often used as an alternative term for 'adam.11 Psalm 149 similarly describes the spiritual authority and dominion given to God's people. It concludes, "This honor have all his saints"* (emphasis added). Even after the fall, God's design was that both men and women would share in natural as well as spiritual rulership and authority.

Genesis chapter 2

"And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became of living being ... And the LORD God said, 'It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper comparable to him ... 'And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. Then the rib which the LORD God had taken from the man He made into a woman, and He brought her to the man. And Adam said,

'This is now bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh; She shall be called Woman, Because she was taken out of Man.'
Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh." (Genesis 2:7, 18, 21-24)

Genesis 2 is important to look at because so many throughout history have read into it their own ideas of subordination and submission of woman to man. It has also been used to establish woman's inferiority to man because of what is called her "secondary creation" (the argument being that woman was created second, and is therefore inferior). We need to read it with fresh eyes, setting aside bias from tradition or prior teaching, and look for God's heart and purposes as we look at the original language.

The source of woman is God

First of all, God formed 'adam (mankind, both male and female) out of the dust of the ground, breathing His life into him, making him a living being. In one of his famous sermons entitled "Triune Salvation", John G. Lake forcefully asserted, "God breathed into him ['adam] His own self, His own being...that heavenly materiality of which God consists. He injected or breathed Himself into the man, and the man then became a composition of the heavenly substance or materiality, and earth or the substance of the earth."12 A study of the original language lends credence to Lake's assertions. Kay Rhodes, in studying the Hebrew in this passage, has concluded that the translation could literally read, "The covenant-keeping, creative God formed A-dam (God's blood) out of tiny particles of Himself and breathed into him all that God was and man became all that He is - the exact likeness of God".13 Without the breath of God, mankind was just dust. As He breathed the breath of life into 'adam, He became mankind's source. This is true for both men and women. In Him we live and move and have our being (Acts 17:28), regardless of gender. Susan Hyatt remarks that an important biblical principle is established here: that man and woman are made of the same substance. She is "bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh." She is also filled with the same life and nature of God. This dispels the pagan idea that woman is made of a substance inferior to that of the man.14

'Ezer Kenegdo - powerful help

Secondly, God said it was not good for 'adam (mankind) to be alone. He therefore decided to make a "a help meet for him" (Genesis 2:18, KJV), "a helper suitable for or corresponding to him" (NAS), "a helper comparable to him" (NKJV). The Hebrew here contains the words 'ezer kenegdo, which imply a helper of his like, fit for him. Brown, Driver, and Briggs describe it as a help corresponding to him, one that is equal and adequate to himself.15 John Garr, who has pioneered research and teaching on the Hebrew roots of the Christian faith, concurs, defining it as "a helper over against or in front of him." He goes on to point out that the implication of the phrase is that woman was intended to be a power equal to the man.16 Aida B. Spencer, in her study Beyond the Curse, says the Septuagint translators were careful to preserve this idea of equality by using the Greek word kata, followed by the direct object. As she points out, this signifies horizontal rather than perpendicular direction in the relationship.17 She notes that it can mean one who is "in front of" and "opposite to" (as in a mirror image), and that the passage contains the preposition neged, which means "in front of". The same word in noun form signifies "one in front" and was used to describe David and Solomon's roles as rulers over Israel. She goes on to say, "If Eve had been created in an inferior position, the writer should have used a term to mean 'after' or 'behind'."18

As we will later see, the understanding that the woman was inferior or subordinate to the man was a product of pagan Hellenism in the pre-Christ era. Hellenistic influence has been preserved in much of the culture of the Middle East. My husband's grandfather was Palestinian. Had his family embraced the culture more fully, his grandmother would have been expected to walk two or three paces behind his grandfather to signify her subservience and inferiority as a woman. As it was, she was often expected to work while he played pinochle. Spencer's study lends tremendous support to the verdict that such a mindset is the product of human thinking and tradition, rather than the heart of God.

Spencer concludes that Genesis 2, "which some suppose to teach a hierarchy of male and female, grammatically reveals that here is no subordination of the helper to Adam."19 Swartley came to similar conclusions, arguing that exegetically, there is no foundation for subordination of woman to man here, explicit or implicit.20

In fact, it is my opinion that both Spencer and Swartley have understated the case! While 'ezer (the helper in verse 18) is often construed to imply a secondary or inferior role, the Hebrew actually means anything but that. It comes from the root azar and means to surround, protect, aid, help, and succor. It is used predominantly (16 times) in the Old Testament to refer to God Himself - the one who comes to our help in time of need. Katherine Bushnell, a Greek and Hebrew scholar of the early 20th century, says the word implies for this reason superior, as opposed to inferior, help.21 Spencer quotes R. David Freeman in the Biblical Archaeology Review as suggesting that "the term 'helper' etymologically signifies 'a power (or strength) who can save'. The word comes from the two roots, one which means 'to rescue, to save' and one meaning 'to be strong'."22

While this might not fit our typical concept of what women are like (or should be like), let me pose a question. Why are most intercessors women? Why do women seem to more easily flow into that position of standing in the gap on behalf of others, of spiritual warfare and of taking hold of the kingdom of heaven with a forceful perseverance that does not let go until the purposes of God are made manifest? Answer: Because God made them that way. He put in them the fierce protectiveness, the strength to rescue, the heart of compassion, and the patient determination which are exhibited by the God who comes to our rescue and who stands as High Priest, forever making intercession for us! Why should it surprise (or threaten) us that the helper God made for Adam was strong and powerful on his behalf?

Matthew Henry, in his quaint style, suggests that if Adam was the best and most excellent of all God's creation because he was created first, then there is a special honor upon the female because she was made after and out of Adam. He says, "If he is the head, she is the crown... the man was dust refined, but the woman was dust double-refined, one removed further from the earth."23 This is a direct reference to Proverbs 12:4 which describes an excellent wife as the "crown" of her husband. A different picture is presented here than the one proposed by those who argue that woman is inferior to man because of her secondary creation! John Bristow makes an excellent point:

"It is interesting to note that no one has carried out this basis of ranking according to the order of creation to its logical conclusion: that cows are superior to man since cows were created before Adam..."24

The rib myth exposed

Church tradition describes the woman as being made from Adam's rib. Even many modern day translations render the Hebrew in verse 21 as "rib" when it describes the separation of 'adam into male and female. We think God took a little piece of man and with this little piece created a little woman. However, deeper study presents a different picture. Hyatt points out that this same word translated "rib" occurs 42 times in the Old Testament and this is the only place it is rendered "rib". It is usually translated as "side" or "sides". As Hyatt also notes, the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures written before the birth of Christ) affirms this meaning for verse 21.25 The correct translation of this verse is meaningful in light of God's purpose and intent for women. God took a side of 'adam to create the woman. Out of the whole, He created two complementary parts. Thus the Body of Christ, both male and female members, are designed to complement one another and be united as one in Christ, the last 'adam (John 17:21).

Positional equality

There are some who have proposed that women are spiritually equal, but appointed by God to a subordinate role or position. They desire to affirm the value of women, but without rocking the boat or offending their own sensibilities, traditions, or mindsets. It is a concession of sorts to the value of women in God's eyes, but it remains unbiblical. What is biblical can only be determined by looking at the whole counsel of God throughout the Scriptures, and by straining our various interpretations and ideologies through the filter of God's purposes regarding woman when He made her. God's perspective was clearly revealed in the creation accounts of Genesis chapters 1 and 2, revealing not only spiritual equality for women, but positional equality as well. Dominion over the earth was given to both men and women in 'adam. He created woman out of the side of 'adam, that male and female might stand together as one. God provided for the male a female counterpart who was not only a mirror image of him, but one who would surround, protect and nurture him as well. It was not the manner or timing of woman's creation which has determined her subject status through the centuries. Rather, the low status of women has resulted from human sinfulness and a willingness to embrace the pagan philosophy of the Greeks, as we shall see in Chapter 6.

Genesis chapter 3

Chapter 3 of Genesis describes the serpent's clever deception and temptation of the woman in verses 1-5 and then continues,

"So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree desirable to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate. She also gave to her husband with her, and he ate." (Genesis 3:6).

Do you see that Eve's husband was right there with her? They both ate, and they both sinned. Adam was equally responsible for the fall of mankind from grace.

Afterwards, God walked through the garden looking for them, calling for them out of His desire for fellowship and companionship. Man and woman had meanwhile retreated behind the bushes. They were overcome with shame over their nakedness, and fearful that their nakedness would be exposed. Fear drove them to a controlling desire to hide their nakedness from God and one another, so that their shame would not be seen! This shame-fear-control cycle, which began as sin entered the world, has become a prevalent pattern in mankind since the fall. It has also become an important dynamic in the relationship between fallen man and woman.

When God got them to confess their sin to Him, He responded with a curse upon the serpent (verse 14) and a curse upon the ground (verse 17). He did not, directly at least, curse the man or the woman.26 To the woman God said,

"I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception; In pain you shall bring forth children; Your desire shall be for your husband, And he shall rule over you." (Genesis 3:16)

To the man, Adam, God said,

"Cursed is the ground for your sake; In toil you shall eat of it All the days of your life. Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you, And you shall eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread Till you return to the ground, For out of it you were taken; For dust you are, And to dust you shall return."(Genesis 3:17-19)

Did God curse Eve?

Those who have taken the position that these passages do not reflect a curse of God upon the man or woman, see them instead as a description of what the consequences of their sin will be. Kathryn Bushnell, for example, points out that the "shalls" in these verses are future tense, not imperative. She says God is not commanding anything to happen, but rather prophesying that these things will come to pass.27 Swidler notes that the simple future tense of the verbs is used, rendering God's statement "not prescriptive, but descriptive" of what would happen in the future.28 Lawrence Richards agrees, stating that "Genesis 3:16 contains God's announcement of one impact of sin on human experience. The intended equality will be distorted; dominion and subordination will mar relationships between the sexes."29

Personally, I think it is a moot point. While God may not have directly cursed Adam and Eve, His words describe a curse operating in their lives as the result of their sin. A curse is simply a predisposition to failure. Deuteronomy chapters 11 and 27-30 detail the consequences of disobedience in terms of the principle of sowing and reaping. It is simple. If we sow disobedience, we will reap cursing. God may be merely prophesying here that these things will come to pass. But even if He is simply describing the consequences of sin, there is an active element of cursing involved in those consequences. For example, Deuteronomy 28:20, describes the cursings of disobedience, "The LORD will send on you cursing, confusion, and rebuke in all that you set your hand to do..." Chester and Betsy Kylstra, in their counseling manual Restoring the Foundations, have defined these curses as the penalty exacted for violating the terms of the covenant with God. They liken it to paying a fine for speeding as a penalty for breaking the laws of the land.30 While the fine may merely be a consequence of disobedience, someone also has to levy that fine and enforce the penalty that had been previously established. Consequently, there is both a passive and an active element to the penalty.

I see the point as inconsequential because even if God had directly cursed Adam and Eve as punishment for their sin, the penalty was paid in full at Calvary! The shed blood of Jesus made that payment on our behalf. As the Kylstras point out, "Through His sacrifice on the Cross, we can by faith apply His blood to cover our sins, to pay the penalty, to stop the curse."31 Galatians 3:10-13 explains that without Jesus, we are under a curse! The law of God brought a curse upon each of us because we can never fulfill it. We were liable in the legal sense for the curse of disobedience found in Deuteronomy chapters11 and 27-30. Verse 13 of Galatians 3 tells us that Jesus redeemed (set us free, released us) from this curse by becoming a curse for us. Praise God!

Enmity and redemption

In verse 15 of Chapter 3, the Lord makes an intriguing statement to the serpent, which sets the stage for the millenniums to come. He says,

"And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel."

This is a Messianic prophecy with which some of us may be familiar. But let me call your attention to the first part of this prophecy: "I will put enmity between you and the woman." Enmity is hatred between enemies. The Lord says here that He is allowing hatred between Satan and women to be set in place. From the time of the fall onwards, Satan would blow the hot breath of his fiery hatred upon all women because of the Seed of redemption carried by the woman, a Seed which would one day crush his head. Also, he would hate the woman because the woman is a type of the Church, the Bride of Christ who is be executor of God's written judgement on the enemy and his kingdom (Psalm 149). Satan would release the fullness of his fury upon women in every way imaginable - through misunderstanding, accusation, betrayal, suppression, oppression, captivity, slavery, abuse, even death. Yet here also, the promised redemption in Christ Jesus majestically overshadows the prophetic declaration of the pain and suffering to come! This promise has enabled God's women to march humbly yet steadfastly through the centuries as servants of God, proclaiming, "I will...and if I perish, I perish!" (Esther 4:16).

Summary

Genesis, the book of beginnings, reveals a great deal concerning the purposes of God for women. It reveals that woman was made in the image and likeness of God, and like man, has her source in God. Because male/female 'adam was created in God's image, then woman was taken out of man, she retained certain unique characteristics of God which the male does not have. This "feminine" side to God's nature is unveiled in both the Old and New Testaments. As a result of the separation of 'adam into male and female, it takes both genders contributing their unique strengths and giftings to fully reflect the image of God within the Body of Christ.

Genesis also reveals that 'adam, both male and female, was given joint dominion over the earth. It paints a picture of male and female sharing in power, authority and dignity as God's ambassadors in the earth. Passages from the Psalms confirm this as God's intent. While woman was given to man as a helper, the Hebrew indicates one who is an equal in terms of adequacy and perfect in terms of fit together. The Hebrew even suggests a powerful helper, identifying one who is strong and powerful on behalf of another. The same word is used predominantly in the Old Testament to refer to God Himself as our helper in time of need. In every respect, the accounts of creation demonstrate positional as well as spiritual equality for men and women.

Chapter 3 of Genesis details the fall of mankind from grace into sin, revealing that both Adam and Eve ate. Both were disobedient. Both sinned. Here we see the cycle of shame-fear-control beginning to dominate their lives upon the entrance of sin into the world. This cycle also began to mar their relationship with one another, as we shall see in later chapters. In verse 15, the Lord prophetically declared that an enmity between Satan and the woman, as carrier of the divine Seed, was set in place. Yet there is a promise of redemption in Christ Jesus which overshadows God's prediction of the pain and suffering to come.

This chapter of Genesis also reveals the effects or curse of sin in operation in the lives of the man and the woman. But this curse was broken as Jesus paid the penalty for their sin and ours with His blood! Legally, the blood of Jesus redeemed both man and woman. He has restored us to a place of freedom from the penalty of sin and given each of us the ability to fulfill the purposes He had for us in the beginning.

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Chapter 3 notes

  1. Matthew Henry, A Commentary on the Whole Bible Volume One (Fleming H. Revell Company, New York), p. 10.
  2. Ruth A. Tucker and Walter Liefeld, Daughters of the Church (Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1987) p. 450.
  3. The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology Volume Two, Colin Brown, Ed. (Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1975), p. 562, 564.
  4. Aida Besacon Spencer, Beyond the Curse (Hendrickson, Peabody MA, 1985), p. 22.
  5. Leonard Swidler, Biblical Affirmations of Woman (The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1979), p. 281.
  6. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament Volume Two, R. Laird Harris, Ed. (Moody Press, Chicago, 1980), p. 907.
  7. Dake's Annotated Reference Bible (Dake Bible Sales, Lawrenceville GA, 1961, 1963), p. 14.
  8. Matthew Henry, A Commentary on the Whole Bible Volume Four (Fleming H. Revell Company, New York), p. 392.
  9. Leonard Swidler, Biblical Affirmations of Woman (The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1979), p. 50.
  10. Lawrence O. Richards, The Word Bible Handbook (Word Books, Waco, 1982), p. 33.
  11. The Spirit-Filled Life Bible, Jack Hayford, General Ed. (Thomas Nelson, Nashville, 1991), p. 714.
  12. John G. Lake, John G. Lake - His Life, His Sermon, His Boldness of Faith (Kenneth Copeland Publications, Fort Worth, 1994), p. 4.
  13. Kay D. Rhodes, Let My Women Go (Kay D. Rhodes, Rock Hill SC, 1994), p. 10.
  14. Susan C. Hyatt, In the Spirit We're Equal (Hyatt Press, Dallas, 1998), p. 234.
  15. Francis Brown, S.R. Driver and Charles Briggs, Hebrew and Greek Lexicon of the Old Testament (trans. Edward Robinson, Clarendon, Oxford, 1907), p. 617.
  16. John D. Garr, "The Biblical Woman", Restore! (Winter 1999), p. 7.
  17. Aida Besancon Spencer, Beyond the Curse (Hendrickson, Peabody MA, 1985), p. 25.
  18. Aida Besancon Spencer, Beyond the Curse (Hendrickson, Peabody MA, 1985), p. 24.
  19. Aida Besancon Spencer, Beyond the Curse (Hendrickson, Peabody MA, 1985), p. 25.
  20. Willard M. Swartley, "Response" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove IL, 1986), p. 85.
  21. Katherine C. Bushnell, God's Word to Women (1923, reprinted by Ray Munson, N. Collins NY), par. 34.
  22. Aida Besancon Spencer, Beyond the Curse (Hendrickson, Peabody MA, 1985), p. 27.
  23. Matthew Henry, A Commentary on the Whole Bible Volume One (Fleming H. Revell Company, New York), p. 19.
  24. John Temple Bristow, What Paul Really Said About Women (HarperCollins, San Franciso, 1988), p. 17.
  25. Susan C. Hyatt, In the Spirit We're Equal (Hyatt Press, Dallas, 1998) p.235.
  26. The Spirit-Filled Life Bible, Jack Hayford, General Ed. (Thomas Nelson, Nashville, 1991), p. 9.
  27. Katherine C. Bushnell, God's Word to Women (1923; reprinted by Ray Munson, N. Collins, NY), par. 74.
  28. Leonard Swidler, Biblical Affirmations of Woman (The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1979), p. 80.
  29. Lawrence O. Richards, The Word Bible Handbook (Word Books, Waco, 1982), p. 33.
  30. Chester and Betsy Kylstra, Restoring the Foundations (Proclaiming His Word, Santa Rosa Beach FL, 1994,1996), p. 53.
  31. Chester and Betsy Kylstra, Restoring the Foundations (Proclaiming His Word, Santa Rosa Beach FL, 1994,1996), p. 53.

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