From Bondage to Blessing

Chapter 11 - What was Paul Really Saying in 1 Timothy 2:11-15?

"I desire therefore that the men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting; in like manner also, that the women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with propriety and moderation, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly clothing, but, which is proper for women professing godliness, with good works. Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. Nevertheless she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love, and holiness, with self-control." (1 Timothy 2:8-15)

This passage is important to address in our study of women in ministry because evangelicals who restrict women in preaching, teaching or filling positions of authority in the Church consider 1 Timothy 2:11-12 the strongest biblical text in support of their position.1 Indeed, Catherine Kroeger says no passage has been used more consistently than this one to prohibit women leadership in the Church.2 Also, the mention of Eve's "secondary creation" in this passage is important because of the rabbinic argument that it requires woman's submission to man. While the argument may be rabbinic in origin, it is very much alive and well today in the Christian Church. Spencer quotes a resolution from the 1984 U.S. Southern Baptist Convention that excluded all women from pastoral functions and ordination based on the submission God supposedly requires because man was first in creation and woman was first in the fall.3 This same issue has, in the past few years, raised its head again in the Southern Baptist Convention, causing much furor and debate.

The background and context of Paul's letters to Timothy

Because the letters to Timothy were personal, addressing problems known to him and to Paul, the apostle did not always spell things out or fully describe the nature of the situation. It is probable that Paul wrote this first letter around A.D. 64, sending it to his young associate in Ephesus, where Timothy was pastoring. We do know these "pastoral epistles" as they are called, were written in part to help Timothy (and Titus) deal with those who propounded false teaching. He mentions this false teaching at the beginning of the letter (1 Timothy 1:3-7), throughout the body of the letter, at the end of the letter (1 Timothy 6:20-21), and in his second letter to Timothy as well. The Kroegers note the letters really addressed "churches under siege" and that more than 20% of the material in these epistles deals with the false teachers and their heretical doctrine.4

Ephesus was the fourth largest city in the Roman Empire. It lay on the western coast of what is now Turkey. This western coastal area of Asia Minor was called Iona and was predominantly Greek. Because of its Greek heritage, philosophy and debate were characteristics of Ephesian society. There was a vigorous Jewish community in Ephesus as well. Ephesus, like Corinth, was a center for cult worship, with a huge temple erected to the goddess Artemis, known as Diana to the Romans. This temple was one of the "seven wonders of the world". The history of goddess worship there was well entrenched prior to the Greeks' arrival in 1000 B.C. The extent to which this cult of Artemis/Diana permeated Hellenistic society is seen in the fact that by the second century A.D., "there was a shrine to Artemis Ephesia in every Greek city throughout the Mediterranean region and that in private devotion she was the most worshipped of the gods." It is likely that the spiritual climate which existed in Ephesus and the surrounding area accounted for the heresy addressed in these epistles and specifically in the prohibition against women teaching.5

John Bristow notes, "it is almost certain that the false teachings that concerned Paul in his letters to Timothy were those of Gnosticism."6 He elaborates that these false teachings were "characterized by useless speculations and the desire for controversy (1 Timothy 1:4; 6:4; 2 Timothy 2:23), a denigration of marriage and a demand for dietary abstinence (1 Timothy 4:3), immoral practices (1 Timothy 4:2), a great attention given to genealogies and myths (1 Timothy 1:4; 4:7; compare Titus 1:14; 3:9), and a denial of the resurrection of the body (2 Timothy 2:18). This list fits one heresy: Gnosticism."7 Catherine and Richard Kroeger agree that the false teaching was probably the product of incipient Gnosticism.8 F.F. Bruce offers support for this thesis in noting that incipient Gnosticism existed in the first century and that it also affected the Corinthian and Colossian churches.9

Though Gnostic cosmologies often varied, a Gnostic version of the story of Adam and Eve was common. Eve was "always a potent force". She had the ability to procreate without male assistance, rendering men unnecessary and unimportant. She pre-existed Adam and gained knowledge that she later imparted to him. Man was formed from Eve's side; she created Adam and gave him life. She was involved in creation and became mother of everything, giving birth to both gods and men. Further, Adam was deluded and then liberated with knowledge from the enlightened Eve.10 We can see how the centuries of goddess worship in Iona laid a foundation for receptivity to Gnosticism. The goddess was considered all-sufficient, creator, source of life, and men were likewise considered unnecessary and unimportant.11 Both Gnosticism and goddess worship taught the superiority of the female and advocated dominion over the male. In that sense, they were anti-marriage, anti-motherhood and anti-feminine.

An analysis of the passage

"I desire therefore that the men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting; in like manner also, that the women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with propriety and moderation, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly clothing, but, which is proper for women professing godliness, with good works." (1 Timothy 2:8-10)

As with 1 Corinthians 11:1-16, which we reviewed in the previous chapter, the context of 1 Timothy 2:8-15 has to do with balancing liberty with convention, so as not to give offense or hinder the spread of the gospel. A few verses earlier, Paul had stated God's desire for all men to be saved and come to a knowledge of the truth (2:4) and that Jesus gave Himself a ransom for all (2:5). As he begins verses 8-10, he says, "I desire therefore ..." referring to the previous verses. Richard Longenecker comments, this passage was necessary for "decorum to avoid confusion, arguments and violation of the sensitivities of others."12 David Scholer likewise says Paul is addressing behavior here out of a concern for propriety and notes numerous other verses within the pastoral epistles which express concern for the reputation of the Church within the larger Greco-Roman society.13 We know that Paul was very much concerned about giving offense. He advised Timothy to be circumcised, not because it made him more holy or righteous, but simply to avoid offending the Jews since Timothy's mother was Jewish!14

Verses 11-12

"Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence." (1 Timothy 2:11-12)

At first glance, this verse looks overwhelming! It's really not surprising that so many have interpreted it in the traditional way, because it seems so clear in the English. Not so in the Greek. The Kroegers maintain that a major doctrinal position regarding women in leadership rests on this one verse (verse 12). And the understanding of this verse is dependent on the translation of one verb, which is only used once in the New Testament.15

First, let's look at verse 11. "Let a woman learn" was a whole new concept to the Jews and the Greeks, one of those paradigm shifts in thinking which took place as the emerging Church affected its rite of passage from the old covenant to the new covenant. Embedded here is an assumption that women are to be taught the Word of God. If we are not aware, the shocking significance of this assumption could pass right by us. Now, how was she to learn? In what manner? The English says "in silence with all submission." What does the original text say? It uses the Greek word hesuchia, which means quietness, tranquility, peace, harmony and agreement. It suggests a restful quietness as in meditation or study. Bristow defines it as "being quiet in order to listen with studious attention."16 It does not mean to refrain from talking or to not speak. It does, however, paint a picture which is in sharp contrast to the cries, shrieks and frenzy which were part of the pagan worship out of which many of these women were saved.17 Hesuchia is used four times in the New Testament: Acts 22:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:12; 1 Timothy 2:11, 12.

She is also to learn "with all submission." What does the original text say? The Greek is the noun form of hupotassomai which is a voluntary willingness to be responsive to the needs of others, to be considerate, willing to serve and honor one another. It is the opposite of self-centered or selfish or grasping.

Bristow comments that Paul's desire for women to be educated in the faith was both "radical in thought and difficult in execution." He reminds us that "women were not used to listening to lectures or theological concepts, or studying at all." So there was a need to instruct them in proper protocol.18 In verse 11, he instructs them to learn in a quiet, studious manner, receptive to and respectful of not only the Word of God, but others.

Now let's take a look at verse 12. Scholer argues that Paul's statements in verses 11-12 are ad hoc instructions intended for a particular situation, directed at a particular group of women. Some object to this and argue that Paul could have been more specific, if that were the case. Scholer, however, reminds us that Paul would not have spelled out a situation that he and Timothy both understood intimately. He points out that Paul did not do this with his discussion of meat offered to idols either.19

Scholer goes on to advocate that Paul's practice in regards to women's ministry in the Church is the key factor in understanding these two verses. Analysis shows that women were just as active in ministry, including teaching, as the men.20 This was with Paul's approval and encouragement, I might add. 1 Corinthians chapters 11-14 have some bearing on our understanding of this verse. In Scholer's professional view, these chapters make prophecy the "functional equivalent" of authoritative teaching. He cites recent studies which "clearly indicate" that "prophetic utterance and prophecy did function as authoritative teaching within Paul's churches."21 Since 1 Corinthians 11 shows clearly that women were actively involved in public ministry, praying and prophesying, any prohibition against teaching for women in general which we might read into this passage is suspect indeed!

Paul also says here he does not permit a woman "to have authority over a man", as the English reads. Here is where we get to the tricky Greek verb, authentein, which occurs only once in the whole New Testament. Scholer argues strongly that if Paul were referring to the normal exercise of authority he would have used exousia/exousiazo as he normally did. The choice of such an unusual verb indicates Paul intended a different nuance of meaning.22 Kroeger similarly notes that "the concept of ruling or exercising authority over another occurs frequently in the New Testament, but always in other words."23 Since authentein means to domineer or usurp authority in a very negative sense, Scholer sees the injunction in this verse as directed against women involved in false teaching who have abused proper exercise of authority in the Church by usurpation and domination of the male leaders and teachers in the church at Ephesus.24 Howard Morgan says authentien had coarse sexual overtones as well, and quotes John Chrysostom, a Church Father from the fourth century, in a commentary on this verb. Chrysostom used the expression "sexual license" in describing its implied meaning.25 Paul's injunction begins to make sense in light of this understanding! Jezebel's control and seduction of believers as she flouted her Gnostic heresies (Revelation 2:20-22) was an example of the kind of situation Paul was addressing. Jezebel was not the wife of King Ahab as some assume. She was a first century prophetess from Thyatira, a multicultural trade center steeped in pagan worship, much like Ephesus. It should be noted that the risen Jesus did not say that it was wrong for Jezebel to be teaching or prophesying. What He called her to repent of was leading people into sexual immorality and eating meat sacrificed to idols through her teaching and prophesying.

Catherine Kroeger spells out the different shades of meaning of authenteo:

  1. to begin something, to be primarily responsible for a condition or action (especially murder);
  2. to rule, dominate;
  3. to usurp power or rights from another [Note: "usurp" means to seize power without right. It is from a Latin root meaning to seize.];
  4. to claim ownership, sovereignty or authorship.26

She then expands on this last shade of meaning and quotes the French etymologist Pierre Chantraine. He suggests that the noun form of the word basically means instigator or originator.27 She goes on to say that the word could imply a claim of authorship - to represent oneself as the author, originator or source of something.28 This sounds very much like the teaching of the Gnostics. In Gnostic theology, Eve was represented as the originator and source of life for Adam and all mankind. Kroeger goes on to apply the meaning of authentein to 1 Timothy 2:12, and suggests it could read this way, "I do not allow a woman to teach nor to represent herself as the originator or source of man."29 The pieces continue to fall into place and this verse begins to make more sense!

Finally, Paul ends verse 12 with an exhortation "to be in silence." Again, it is the Greek word hesuchia, meaning restful quietness or to be quietly attentive. As Kroeger sums it up, "women are asked to learn with an attitude of receptivity and, at the end of verse 12, to be in harmony rather than on a collision course with the truth of the Word."30

Verses 13-14

"For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression." (1 Timothy 2:13-14)

Kroeger explains that verses 13 and 14 supply the reason for the constraint found in verse 12. It is because these women were teaching Gnostic (or pre-Gnostic) versions of the Adam and Eve story that contradicted the biblical account. The Gnostic versions promoted Eve as the source of Adam. They also pictured Eve as Adam's instructor, an enlightened one who was a mediator of divine revelation and knowledge or "gnosis" brought by the serpent, rather than one who was deceived and fell into sin as a result.31 Bristow agrees, noting that Gnostics would lay no blame on Eve at all, seeing the fall as humankind's great leap forward into grasping knowledge and finding enlightenment.32

Here, Paul simply counters the false teaching with the truth - that Eve was utterly deceived in listening to the serpent and fell into transgression against the will of God as a result. Paul is not promoting the inferiority of women as a result of Eve's "secondary creation", nor disqualifying women from ministry as a result of Eve's deception. These conclusions have been read into this verse by those looking for evidence to support their bias. We could add that if the label on Eve is "gullible", then the label on Adam would be "rebellious", because he disobeyed knowingly. If Eve is then disqualified by her naivety, would not Adam also be disqualified by his rebellion?33

Verse 15

"Nevertheless she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love, and holiness, with self-control." (1 Timothy 2:15)

This is a difficult verse to translate, one that has left many scholars scratching their heads in bewilderment. We know, in studying the full breadth of the Scriptures, that Paul is not saying women are saved through procreation. We know that salvation by grace through faith in not limited to men only. Also, the switch from "she" to "they" is confusing. The verb sothesetai ("will be saved") is singular, whereas the second verb meinosin ("to abide or remain") is plural. Some have suggested that the singular "she" refers to Eve, and "salvation through childbearing" makes reference to the salvation that would come through the seed of the woman, the Messiah.34

Kroeger may shed some light on this verse. She notes that, "Childbearing and marriage were forbidden by certain Gnostic groups because they pulled the soul-atoms back into material bodies instead of liberating them to ascend to their ultimate source." Some of the Gnostics also "engaged in ritual promiscuity and forcibly aborted any accidental pregnancies, eating the fetus in a sacramental meal." She further notes that other Gnostics taught that Jesus came to do away with childbearing and still others taught that femininity was a bondage; women must become men in order to be saved.35

Once again, an understanding of the Gnostic heresy with which Paul was dealing may help us to make sense out of what at first appeared to be an incomprehensible verse. Paul may have intended it to be a counter to the Gnostic false teaching which assaulted marriage, childbearing, and feminine virtues. In fact, there is the implication that they will find wholeness (one aspect of salvation) through embracing their God-given femininity and the godly virtues of faith, love, holiness and self-control.

Some personal thoughts regarding verse 15

As I looked at this confusing and bewildering verse 15, I had a little conversation with the Lord. As we talked, I began to see it in a new way. I'm not a Greek scholar, so I can't verify from a language standpoint how valid this interpretation might be. I will say that something in my spirit leaped! It all happened as I began to look at the individual Greek words used. First, I looked at "nevertheless" and saw that it was a conjunction that meant the equivalent of "but". It was directed back to the sentence before in which Paul had just finished saying Eve fell into transgression. Now, he is saying, she fell into sin but ....which presupposes something good is coming! It was bad news, but now there is good news! I then went on to examine the word translated "saved". This is a form of the Greek verb sozo, which means to be healed, delivered, rescued, made whole. Then I looked at the word for "childbearing". It literally means to bring forth or bear children. But the children it designates are teknon. I know from my studies on sonship that teknon are not infants or even toddlers. The word is used to refer to those who are old enough to be trained in the Father's business as apprentices - or, as we would call them, "disciples". We often speak of birthing and raising up spiritual children in the Kingdom. We call the women who seem to be good at this "Mothers in Israel." Why is it so hard for us to see that Paul may never have been talking about natural birth here at all? Next I looked at the Greek word translated "if" and that is exactly what it means, without many other rival possibilities. I went on to the word for "continue" and found that the Greek paints a picture of a conditional abiding or remaining in. However, what was interesting was that it was in the aorist tense, which encompasses past, present and future. He was qualifying his statement with the condition that we abide and keep on abiding in the virtues listed.

Next I looked at each one of these virtues we are to abide and keep on abiding in. "Faith" or the Greek word pistis, has an emphasis on complete trust and total confidence in God wrapped up in its meaning. It is so much more than deciding to believe or some kind of mental assent. It's being sold out completely to the Lord, willing to put every aspect of our life in His hands! "Love" is the Greek word agape, which is God's love in us. It is the love that has been shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit. It is the love which is selfless and seeks not its own. It is the love which causes a person to lay down their life for their friends. It is the love which motivated Jesus as he healed the sick, lifted up the crushed, set at liberty the oppressed and pulled the scales off the eyes of the blind! The Greek word translated "holiness" means consecrated to God, set apart for His use. It's the picture of offering ourselves as the living sacrifices mentioned in Romans 12:1-2. Finally, "self-control" is from a Greek word that means sound of mind, temperate, stable, steady - not flaky! I could really relate to this one because I have known lots of flaky women in my years in the ministry.

To put it all together, then, the thought behind verse 15 would read something like this: Even though Eve sinned and really blew it, nevertheless, woman (singular) will experience healing, freedom and wholeness through her obedience to the Lord in bringing forth and making disciples if God's women (plural) abide and keep on abiding in a complete trust and confidence in God, in His perfect love, in that place of willingness to die to self and be yielded to His purposes, and in the steadiness and stability which comes from the empowerment of His Spirit within us.

This understanding of verse 15 may be borne out by the very next sentence which Paul writes. Remember, the chapter divisions were added by the translators. He goes on to say that if anyone desires the office of a bishop, they aspire to a good work. Most translations say "any man", because the translators assumed it would be a man. But the Greek word used is genderless and means anyone. Paul has just finished speaking of how women could enter into and begin to walk in God's redemptive purposes for them, despite Eve's transgression. He then flows right into some of his thoughts on leadership and some of the qualifications for those who would like God to use them as leaders in the Body of Christ. What could be more natural?

Summary

The key to understanding the passage in 1 Timothy 2:8-15 is an awareness of the goddess worship and Gnostic heresies which permeated Ephesus and influenced the women who were coming into the Church from pagan backgrounds. The passage is presented within a context of exhorting the believers to be honorable witnesses for Christ, living epistles read of all men who would reveal Him to the world so that people might be saved.

In looking at the difficult verses, we discovered a number of things. One was that Paul's exhortation about how women were to learn, does not mean in silence under a forced subjection to a higher authority. What Paul does seem to be encouraging in women is the quiet, respectful, listening attitude of the attentive student who approaches learning about God's heart, mind, will and purposes with a humble and submissive heart.

Another thing we discovered is that the arguments which use verse 12 to prohibit women teaching or operating in positions where they might have authority over men, hang on one Greek verb which is used nowhere else in the New Testament. Paul did not use the normal word for "authority", but rather an obscure word which has some other shades of meaning. It has more the connotation of domineering and usurping or seizing authority. It can also imply a claim of authorship or origin. The Gnostic heresies, interestingly enough, promoted Eve as the source or origin of Adam and as the Enlightened One who brings light and life to all mankind. The word authentein can also have coarse, sexual overtones, implying seduction and the promotion of sexual license. John Chrysostom, a Church Father from the fourth century, understood it to have this meaning.

Finally, we looked at some different ways in which the last verse might be read which are non-traditional, but consistent with the Greek and with the cultural and historical context in which the passage was written. We considered that Paul may have been sharing good news with women believers, showing them how they could walk in God's redemptive purposes of healing, freedom and wholeness through the birthing and discipling of spiritual children. This understanding of the verse fits and is appropriate within the general context of this portion to Paul's letter to Timothy.

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Chapter 11 notes

  1. David M. Scholer, "1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church's Ministry" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 193.
  2. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 225.
  3. Aida Besacon Spencer, Beyond the Curse (Hendrickson, Peabody, MA, 1985), p. 19.
  4. Richard C. Kroeger and Catherine C. Kroeger, I Suffer Not a Woman - Rethinking 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in Light of Ancient Evidence (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1992), p. 42.
  5. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 226-228.
  6. John Temple Bristow, What Paul Really Said About Women (HarperCollins, San Francisco, 1988), p. 74.
  7. John Temple Bristow, What Paul Really Said About Women (HarperCollins, San Francisco, 1988), p. 73.
  8. Richard C. Kroeger and Catherine C. Kroeger, I Suffer Not a Woman - Rethinking 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in Light of Ancient Evidence (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1992), p. 42.
  9. F.F. Bruce, Paul-Apostle of the Heart Set Free (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., originally published by Paternoster Press, Ltd., Exeter, 1977), p. 179, 408-409, 413, 417.
  10. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 232-235.
  11. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 232-234.
  12. Richard N. Longenecker, "Authority, Hierarchy and Leadership Patterns in the Bible" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 78.
  13. David M. Scholer, "1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church's Ministry" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 197-198.
  14. The Spirit-Filled Life Bible, Jack Hayford, General Ed. (Thomas Nelson, Nashville, 1991), p. 1839.
  15. Richard C. Kroeger and Catherine C. Kroeger, I Suffer Not a Woman - Rethinking 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in Light of Ancient Evidence (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1992), p. 12.
  16. John Temple Bristow, What Paul Really Said About Women (HarperCollins, San Francisco, 1988), p. 71.
  17. Jimmilea Berryhill, "First Century Woman", Restore! (Winter 1999), p. 23
  18. John Temple Bristow, What Paul Really Said About Women (HarperCollins, San Francisco, 1988), p. 70-71.
  19. David M. Scholer, "1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church's Ministry" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 203-204.
  20. David M. Scholer, "1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church's Ministry" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 205.
  21. David M. Scholer, "1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church's Ministry" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 207.
  22. David M. Scholer, "1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church's Ministry" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 205.
  23. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 229.
  24. David M. Scholer, "1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church's Ministry" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 205.
  25. Howard Morgan, "Anointed for Service, Robbed of Opportunity", Restore! (Winter 1999), p. 20.
  26. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 225.
  27. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986)., p. 229-230.
  28. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 231.
  29. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 232.
  30. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 237.
  31. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 237-238.
  32. John Temple Bristow, What Paul Really Said About Women (HarperCollins, San Francisco, 1988), p. 75.
  33. Gretchen Gaebelein Hull, "Response" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 25.
  34. Roger Nicole, "Biblical Authority and Feminist Aspirations" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 48.
  35. Catherine C. Kroeger, "1 Timothy 2:12 - A Classicist's View" in Women, Authority and the Bible, Alvera Mickelsen, Ed. (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 1986), p. 243.

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